EE C145L. Introductory Electronic Transducers Laboratory

Catalog Description: Laboratory exercises exploring a variety of electronic transducers for measuring physical quantities such as temperature, force, displacement, sound, light, ionic potential; the use of circuits for low-level differential amplification and analog signal processing; and the use of microcomputers for digital sampling and display. Lectures cover principles explored in the laboratory exercises; construction, response and signal to noise of electronic transducers and actuators; and design of circuits for sensing and controlling physical quantities.

Units: 3.0

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General Catalog listing

Department Notes:

Course objectives:

  • To be able to amplify signals from sensors that have low-level, differential, high impedance outputs
  • To learn about noise sources and how to use shielding, grounding, and analog filtering to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio
  • To learn the properties of a number of useful sensors for measuring position, temperature, strain, force, light, ionic potentials, biological signals, ionizing radiation, etc.
  • To be able to design instrumentation that senses desired quantities, transduces to an electrical signal, and amplifies and filters that signal for interfacing to a microcomputer
  • To be able to design simple analog control systems, using sensors, amplification, filtering, controller circuits, power amplifiers, and actuators
  • To make analog circuits work (design and debugging)
  • To write clear, concise, informative laboratory reports

Topics Covered:

  • Properties of the ideal and the realistic op-amp
  • Op-amp properties: Open-loop Bode plot, gain-bandwidth product, risetime, slewing rate
  • Amplifier circuits using the op-amp and negative feedback: inverting, non-inverting, buffer, differential, current summing, low-level rectification; Bode plot, risetime
  • Instrumentation amplifier circuit and properties: common mode and differential gains
  • Isolation amplifiers- electromagnetic and optical
  • Gaussian curve of error and error propagation
  • Johnson and shot noise- combined amplifier noise
  • Interference, grounding, and shielding
  • Analog filtering using op-amps and negative feedback: gain and phase shift vs. frequency- simple filters and multi-pole Butterworth and Bessel filters
  • Notch filter and analysis
  • Power op-amp
  • Introduction to A/D and D/A conversion- data acquisition using the microcomputer
  • Definition, general characteristics, and examples of sensors and actuators
  • Position and angle sensors: resistive, Piezoelectric, and optical
  • Gray and binary codes
  • Position actuators: Piezoelectric, solenoid, and stepper motor
  • Thompson, Peltier, and Seebeck emfs
  • Thermocouple properties and electronic ice points
  • Thermistor properties and optimized bridge readout; self-heating
  • Platinum resistance and solid state temperature sensors
  • Infrared sensing and imaging
  • Thermoelectric heat pump- thermal efficiency and heat transfer equations
  • Strain gauge sensors, bridges, and force transducers
  • Piezoelectric properties and measurement of force, acceleration, pressure
  • Production and measurement of vacua
  • Silicon photodiode: construction, properties, and uses
  • Production of light: incandescent, fluorescent, lasers
  • Electrochemical reactions and the Ag(AgCl) skin electrode
  • The characteristics and detection of alpha, beta, x-ray, and gamma radiation, and practical applications in industry and medicine
  • Electrical safety: accident scenarios; grounding, isolation transformers and amplifiers, ground fault interrupters, circuit breakers, surge protectors
  • Signals from the human heart: electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, blood pressure
  • Skeletal muscle and the electromyogram
  • The electrooculogram and the mechanics of eye motion
  • Analog control systems: sensors, instrumentation amplifiers, controller circuits, power amplifiers, and actuators; on-off, proportional, PID controllers

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