Intermittent Visual Servoing: Effciently Learning Policies Robust to Instrument Changes for High-precision Surgical Manipulation

Samuel Paradis, Ken Goldberg and Joseph Gonzalez

EECS Department
University of California, Berkeley
Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2021-104
May 14, 2021

http://www2.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2021/EECS-2021-104.pdf

Assisting surgeons with automation of surgical subtasks is challenging due to backlash, hysteresis, and variable tensioning in cable-driven robots. These issues are exacerbated as surgical instruments are changed during an operation. In this work, we propose a framework for automation of high-precision surgical subtasks by learning local, sample-efficient, accurate, closed-loop policies that use visual feedback instead of robot encoder estimates. This framework, which we call deep Intermittent Visual Servoing (IVS), switches to a learned visual servo policy for high-precision segments of repetitive surgical tasks while relying on a coarse open-loop policy for the segments where precision is not necessary. We train the policy using only 180 human demonstrations that are roughly 2 seconds each. Results on a da Vinci Research Kit suggest that combining the coarse policy with half a second of corrections from the learned policy during each high-precision segment improves the success rate on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery peg transfer task from 72.9% to 99.2%, 31.3% to 99.2%, and 47.2% to 100.0% for 3 instruments with differing cable properties. In the contexts we studied, IVS attains the highest published success rates for automated surgical peg transfer and is significantly more reliable than previous techniques when instruments are changed.

Advisor: Ken Goldberg


BibTeX citation:

@mastersthesis{Paradis:EECS-2021-104,
    Author = {Paradis, Samuel and Goldberg, Ken and Gonzalez, Joseph},
    Title = {Intermittent Visual Servoing: Effciently Learning Policies Robust to Instrument Changes for High-precision Surgical Manipulation},
    School = {EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley},
    Year = {2021},
    Month = {May},
    URL = {http://www2.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2021/EECS-2021-104.html},
    Number = {UCB/EECS-2021-104},
    Abstract = {Assisting surgeons with automation of surgical subtasks is challenging due to backlash, hysteresis, and variable tensioning in cable-driven robots. These issues are exacerbated as surgical instruments are changed during an operation. In this work, we propose a framework for automation of high-precision surgical subtasks by learning local, sample-efficient, accurate, closed-loop policies that use visual feedback instead of robot encoder estimates. This framework, which we call deep Intermittent Visual Servoing (IVS), switches to a learned visual servo policy for high-precision segments of repetitive surgical tasks while relying on a coarse open-loop policy for the segments where precision is not necessary. We train the policy using only 180 human demonstrations that are roughly 2 seconds each. Results on a da Vinci Research Kit suggest that combining the coarse policy with half a second of corrections from the learned policy during each high-precision segment improves the success rate on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery peg transfer task from 72.9% to 99.2%, 31.3% to 99.2%, and 47.2% to 100.0% for 3 instruments with differing cable properties. In the contexts we studied, IVS attains the highest published success rates for automated surgical peg transfer and is significantly more reliable than previous techniques when instruments are changed.}
}

EndNote citation:

%0 Thesis
%A Paradis, Samuel
%A Goldberg, Ken
%A Gonzalez, Joseph
%T Intermittent Visual Servoing: Effciently Learning Policies Robust to Instrument Changes for High-precision Surgical Manipulation
%I EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley
%D 2021
%8 May 14
%@ UCB/EECS-2021-104
%U http://www2.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2021/EECS-2021-104.html
%F Paradis:EECS-2021-104